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According to a University of wildlife ecology and conservation researcher, the average level of mercury uptake in wading birds in a region has increased over the past several years. Five years ago, the average level was 18 parts per million.

a. Give the null and alternative hypotheses for testing whether the average level today is than more 18 ppm.

A. H0: p = 18, H1: u != 18
B. H0: u != 18, H1: u < 18> c. H0: u <= 18, H1: u > 18 
D. H0: u >= 18, H1: u < 18>

b. Describe a Type I error for this test.

c. Describe a Type II error for this test.


Remember that Type I error occurs when in the process of hypothesis testing, a correct null hypothesis is falsely rejected. That is the procedures used leads to an event that the null hypothesis is rejected, while in reality it should not be rejected. 

The claim for this test is to test the claim that the mean has increased from 18. The research commits type I error if they conclude that the mean is greater than 18 yet in reality is has not increased. 

Type II error for this test is made in case we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the mean has not increased.  

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