#### A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: userid

Filename: views/question.php

Line Number: 192

Backtrace:

File: /home/noqkocv1izd6/public_html/application/views/question.php

Line: 192

Function: _error_handler

File: /home/noqkocv1izd6/public_html/application/controllers/Questions.php

Line: 416

Function: view

File: /home/noqkocv1izd6/public_html/index.php

Line: 315

Function: require_once

## An alternative formula for the standard deviation that is sometimes convenient for hand calculations is shown below.

You used SSx = sum(x - x_bar)^2 when calculating variance and standard deviation. An alternative formula for the standard deviation that is sometimes convenient for hand calculations is shown below. You can find the sample variance by dividing the sum of squares by n-1, and the sample standard deviation by finding the square root of the sample variance. Complete parts (a) and (b) below.

data;

19, 16, 19, 24,19

15, 18, 14, 18, 17

18, 20, 24, 20, 18

17, 14, 20, 14, 16

a. Use the shortcut formula to calculate the sample standard deviation.